Michael W. Kramer

Professor and Chair
Department of Communication

University of Oklahoma

Office: 405-325- 9503        Email: Michael Kramer

Research

My primary area of research is the assimilation/socialization process of uncertainty management in organizations. In particular, I have examined the interaction of the individual and the organization as the individual joins the organization as a newcomer, is transfered or promoted in the organization, and eventually leaves the organization. My book Managing Uncertainty in Organizational Communication came out in 2004. It provides a revised version of uncertainty reduction theory base on Berger and Calabrese (1975) and applies it to organizational settings. My recent book, Organizational Socialization: Joining and Leaving Organizations (2010) provides a rather thorough explication of my understanding of the socialization/assimilation process. I have recently focused on volunteers rather than employees. I recently published two editted books with Laurie Lewis and Loril Gosset on volunteers Volunteering and communication: Studies from multiple contexts (2013) and Volunteering and communication Volume II: Studies in intercultural and international contexts (2015). In addition, Jennifer Mize Smith and I co-editted a book of case studies on volunteers and nonprofits, Case studies of nonprofit organizations and volunteers (2015).

I have for a long time wanted to write an organizational communication textbook. Ryan Bisel and I worked on a textbook together. We are very pleased with publication of the first edition of our textbook, Organizational Communication: A Lifespan Approach (2017) with Oxford Press.

I also have some broader interests. I have done research in emotion management and also groups and leadership, primarily voluntary groups such as community theater. I have also examined a number of other topics of interest to me including effective teachers and the basic course, the role of institutional review boards and trends in communication research. In addition, I have a few textbook, case studies, and other publications such as a case study and parliamentary procedure role playing game. Because much of my recent research is focused on volunteers, I have also included a listing of publications related to volunteers. These are listed under other categories as well, but may not be apparent. I have been asked to write a number of handbook chapters in recent years. Most are related to the assimilation and socialization work I have done.

After being trained in quantitative research methods, I have moved on to using a more varied methodology in my research. My publications include quantitative studies, interview studies, ethnographies, and textual criticism.

Here is a listing of the research that I have done that has resulted in publications in different areas:

Assimilation and Uncertainty Management Research

Kramer, M.W., & Danielson, M.A. (2017). Communication and role development for zoo volunteers: Responding to role-sending, role-making, and role-remaking. Journal of Applied Communication Research,45, 96-115.

Kramer, M.W., & Danielson, M.A. (2016). Developing and re-developing volunteer roles: The case of ongoing assimilation of docent zoo volunteers. Management Communication Quarterly,30, 103-120.

Hoelscher, C.S., Zanin, A.C.,, & Kramer, M.W. (2016). The role of values in alternative organizations: Examining organizational identification in farmers markets. Western Journal of Communication, 80, 481-501.

Tornes, M.J., & Kramer, M.W. (2015). The volunteer experience in temporary organizations: Volunteer role negotiation and identity in a popular culture conference. Communication Studies, 66, 590-606.

Meisenbach, R.J., & Kramer, M.W. (2014). Exploring nested identities: Voluntary membership, social category identity, and identification in a community choir. Management Communication Quarterly,28, 187-213.

Kramer, M.W., Meisenbach, R.J., & Hansen, G.J. (2013). Communication, uncertainty,   and volunteer membership. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41, 1-22.

Tan, C.L., & Kramer, M.W. (2012). Communication and voluntary downward career changes. Journal of Applied Communication Research,40, 87-106.

Kramer, M.W. (2011). A study of voluntary organizational membership: The assimilation process in a community choir. Western Journal of Communication, 75, 52-74.

Kramer, M.W. (2011). Toward a communication model of volunteer socialization. Communication Monographs, 78, 233-255.

Kramer, M.W. (2010). Organizational socialization: Joining and leaving organizations. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Kramer, M.W. (2009). Role negotiations in a temporary organization: Making sense during role development in an educational theater production. Management Communication Quarterly, 23, 188-217.

Kramer, M.W. (2009). Managing uncertainty in work interactions. In T.D. Afifi & W. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty, information management, and disclosure decisions: Theories and applications. (pp. 164-181). London: Routledge.

Kramer, M.W. (2004). Managing uncertainty in organizational communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kramer, M.W., Dougherty, D.S., & Pierce, T.A. (2004). Communication during a corporate merger: A case of managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Communication Research, 30, 71-101.

Kramer, M.W., & Berman, J.E. (2001). Making sense of a university's culture: An examination of undergraduate students' stories. Southern Communication Journal, 66, 297-311.

Kramer, M.W. (1999). Motivation to reduce uncertainty: Reconceptualizing uncertainty reduction theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 13, 305-316.

Kramer, M.W., & Noland, T.L. (1999). Communication during job promotions: A case of ongoing assimilation. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27, 335-355.

Callister, R.R., Kramer, M.W. & Turban, D.B. (1999). Feedback Seeking Following Career Transitions. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 429-438.

Kramer, M.W., & Miller, V.D. (1999). In support of contemporary conceptualizations of assimilation: A response to criticisms of socialization research. Communication Monographs, 66, 358-367.

Miller, V.D., & Kramer, M.W. (1999). A reply to Bullis, Turner, and Clair. Communication Monographs, 66, 390-392.

Jablin, F.M., & Kramer, M.W. (1998). Communication-related sense-making and adjustment during job transfers. Management Communication Quarterly, 12, 155-182.

Sias, P.S., Kramer, M.W., & Jenkins, E. (1997). A comparison of the communication behaviors of temporary employees and new hires. Communication Research, 24, 731-754.

Kramer, M.W. (1996). A longitudinal study of peer communication during job transfers: The impact of frequency, quality, and network multiplexity on adjustment. Human Communication Research, 23, 59-86.

Cox, S.A., & Kramer, M.W. (1995). Communication during employee dismissals: Social exchange principles and group influences on employee exit. Management Communication Quarterly, 9, 156-190.

Kramer, M.W. (1995). A longitudinal study of superior-subordinate communication during job transfers. Human Communication Research, 22, 39-64.

Kramer, M.W., Callister, R.R., & Turban, D.B. (1995). Information-giving and information-receiving during job transitions. Western Journal of Communication, 59, 151-170.

Kramer, M.W. (1994). Uncertainty reduction during job transitions: An exploratory study of the communication experiences of newcomers and transferees. Management Communication Quarterly, 7, 384-412.

Kramer, M.W. (1993). Communication after job transfers: Social exchange processes in learning new roles. Human Communication Research, 20, 147-174.

Kramer, M.W. (1993). Communication and uncertainty reduction during job transfers: Leaving and joining processes. Communication Monographs, 60, 178-198.

Kramer, M.W. (1989). Communication during intraorganizational job transfers. Management Communication Quarterly, 3, 219-248.

Emotion Management

Kramer, M.W., & Tan, C.L. (2006). Emotion management in dealing with difficult people. In J.H. Fritz and B.L. Omdahl (Eds.), Problematic relationships in the workplace (pp.153-178). New York: Peter Lang Publishers.

Kramer, M.W., & Hess, J.A. (2002). Communication rules for the display of emotions in organizational settings. Management Communication Quarterly, 16, 66-80.

Fiebig, G.V., & Kramer, M.W. (1998). A framework for the study of emotions in organizational contexts. Management Communication Quarterly, 11, 336-372.

Groups and Leadership

Piercy, C., & Kramer, M.W. (2017). Exploring dialectical tensions of leading volunteers in two community choirs. Communication Studies, 68, 208-226.

Bisel, R.S., Kramer, M.W., & Banas, J.A. (2017). Scaling up to institutional entrepreneurship: A life history of an elite training gymnastics organization. Human Relations, 70, 410-435.

Hoelscher, C.S., Kramer, M.W., Nguyen, C., Cooper, O.D., Zanin, A.C., & Day, E.A. (2017). Decision making and communication in a statewide interagency task force: An investigation of planned versus utilized processes. Management Communication Quarterly, 31, 39-68.

Zanin, A.C., Hoelscher, C.S., & Kramer, M.W. (2016). Extending symbolic convergence theory: A shared identity perspective on a team's culture. Small Group Research, 47, 438-472.

Kramer, M.W., & Dougherty, D.S. (2013). Groupthink as communication process, not outcome. Communication and Social Change, 1, 44-62.

Kramer, M.W., & Crespy, D.R. (2011). Communicating collaborative leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 22, 1024-1037.

Franz, L.C., & Kramer, M.W.  (2010). The dimensions of decisions: A conceptual and empirical investigation. In P.C. Nutt & D.C. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of decision making (pp. 517-540). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley.

Kramer, M.W., Benoit, P.J., Dixon, M.A., & Benoit-Bryan, J.M. (2007). Group processes in a teaching renewal retreat: Functions and dialectical tensions. Southern Communication Journal, 72, 145-168.

Kramer, M.W. (2007). Bona fide group. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The Blackwell international encyclopedia of communication. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Prentice, C.M., & Kramer, M.W. (2006). Dialectical tensions in the classroom. Southern Communication Journal, 71, 339-361.

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Communication strategies for sharing leadership within a creative team: LMX in theater groups. In G. B. Graen (Ed.), LMX leadership: The series: Sharing network leadership (Vol. 4, pp. 1-24). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Shared leadership in a community theater group: Filling the leadership role. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34, 141-162.

Kramer, M.W. (2005). An examination of communication and outcomes in two community theater groups. In O. Leontovich & J. Parrish-Sprowl (Eds.), Communication studies 2005: Modern anthology (pp. 119-150). Volgograd, Russia: Peremena.

Kramer, M.W. (2005). An ethnography of a fundraising marathon group. Journal of Communication, 55, 257-276.

Kramer, M.W. (2005). Communication and social exchange processes in community theater groups. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 33,159-182.

Kramer, M.W. (2004). Toward a theory of dialectics in group communication: An ethnographic study of a community theater group. Communication Monographs, 71, 311-332.

Kramer, M.W. (2004). The complexity of communication in leader-member exchanges. In G. B. Graen (Ed.), LMX leadership: The series: New frontiers of leadership, (Vol. 2, pp. 167-191). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Kramer, M.W. (2002). Communication in a community theater group: Managing multiple group roles. Communication Studies, 53, 151-170.

Kramer, M.W., Kuo, C.L., & Dailey, J.C. (1997). The impact of brainstorming on subsequent group decision-making: Beyond generating ideas. Small Group Research, 28, 218-242.

Teacher Effectiveness and Basic Course

Kramer, M.W. (2017). Sage on the stage or bore at the board. Communication Education, 66, 245-247.

Prentice, C.M., & Kramer, M.W. (2006). Dialectical tensions in the classroom. Southern Communication Journal, 71, 339-361.

Hinton, J.S., & Kramer, M.W. (1998). The impact of self-directed videotape feedback on students' self-reported levels of communication competence and apprehension. Communication Education, 47, 151-161.

Kramer, M.W., & Pier, P.M. (1999). Students' Perceptions of Effective and Ineffective Communication by College Teachers. Southern Communication Journal, 65, 16-33.

Kramer, M.W., & Hinton, J.S. (1996). The differential impact of a basic public speaking course on perceived communication competencies in class, work and social contexts. In C. Newburger (Ed.), Basic Communication Course Annual (Vol. 8, pp. 1-25). Boston: American Press.

Institutional Review Boards, Ethics, and the Communication Field  

Bisel, R.S., & Kramer, M.W. (2014). Denying what workers believe are unethical worplace requests: Do workers use moral, operational, or policy justifications publicaly? Management Communication Quarterly,28, 111-129.

Kramer, M.W. (2012). Assessing the validity and value of program and faculty productivity assessments. The Electronic Journal of Communication, 22.

Kramer, M.W. (2011). White Paper: Institutional Review Boards. In Future Research in the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences 2020. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/sbe_2020/all.cfm.

Kramer, M.W. (2010). It depends on your criteria. Communication Monographs, 77, 435-437.

Kramer, M.W., Miller, V.D., & Commuri, S. (2009). Faculty and Institutional Review Board communication. Communication Education, 58, 497-515.

Kramer, M.W. (2007). Institutional review boards. In N. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kramer, M.W., Hess, J.A., & Reid, L.D. (2007). Trends in communication scholarship: An analysis of four representative NCA and ICA journals over the last 70 years. Review of Communication, 7, 227-238.

Dougherty, D.S., & Kramer, M.W., (2005). A rationale for scholarly examination of Institutional Review Boards: A case study. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 33,183-188.

Dougherty, D.S. & Kramer, M.W. (2005). Examining Institutional Review Boards from multiple perspectives. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 33, 277-284.

Handbook Chapters

Kramer, M.W., & Sias, P.S. (2014). Interpersonal relationships and organizational communication. In C.R. Berger (Ed.) De Gruyter Mouton handbook of interpersonal communication (pp. 467-491). Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.

Kramer, M.W., & Myers, K.K. (2014). Communication and workplace socialization: A life-span examination of the work-life interface. In J.S. Nussbaum (Ed.), Handbook of life-span communication (pp. 253-271). New York, NY: Peter Lange .

Kramer, M.W., & Miller, V.D. (2014). Socialization and assimilation: Theories, processes, and outcomes. In L.L. Putnam & D.K. Mumby (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of organizational communication (pp. 525-547). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Krone, K.J., Kramer, M.W., & Sias, P.M.  (2010). Theoretical developments in organizational communication research. In C.R. Berger, M.E. Roloff, & D. Roskos-Ewolsen (Eds.), The handbook of communication science (pp. 165-182). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Franz, L.C., & Kramer, M.W.  (2010). The dimensions of decisions: A conceptual and empirical investigation. In P.C. Nutt & D.C. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of decision making (pp. 517-540). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley.

Textbook, Case Studies, and Other Publications

Kramer, M.W., & Bisel, R.S. (2017). Organizational Communication: A Lifespan Approach. New York: Oxford Press.

Kramer, M.W., & Bisel, R.S. (2017). Instructor's Manual/Testbank to accompany Organizational Communication: A Lifespan Approach. New York: Oxford Press.

Kramer, M.W., Hoelscher, C.S., Day, E.A., Nguyen, C., & Cooper, O.D. (2017). Collaborating while getting the job done on time. In R. G. Heath & M. G. Isbell (Eds.), Collaboration: Ethics and skills for diverse organizations, groups, and communities , (pp. 326-331). Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

Kramer, M.W. (2017). Cultural diversity in a community choir. In J.P. Fyke, J. Faris, & P.M. Buzzanell (Eds.) Cases in organizational and managerial communication: Stretching boundaries , (pp. 9-13). New York: Routledge.

Kramer, M.W. (2016). To gain or not to gain, that is the question. In D.L. Tucker & J.A. Wrench (Eds.) Casing sport communication, (pp. 212-217). Dubuque, IO: Kendall Hunt.

Mize Smith, J. & Kramer, M.W. (2015). An introduction to nonprofit organizations and volunteers. In J. Mize Smith & M.W. Kramer (Eds.) Case studies in nonprofit organizations and volunteers, (pp. 1-10). New York: Peter Lang.

Kramer, M.W. (2015). The choice. In J. Mize Smith & M.W. Kramer (Eds.) Case studies in nonprofit organization and volunteers, (pp. 94-99). New York: Peter Lang.

Change, E., Cone, K.C., Kramer, M.W., & Schwarz, B. (2015). Capstone experiences. In C. R. A. Strathman & J. Spain (Eds.) The pursuit of teaching excellence: Lessons from the University of Missouri Kemper teaching fellows, (pp. 83-97). Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

Kramer, M.W. (2012). Learning the job. In J.A. Wrench (Ed.) Casing organizaional communication (pp. 49-52). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Kramer, M.W. (2010). Group socialization: The newcomer experience in a community choir. In L. Black D. (Ed.) Group Communication: Cases for Analysis, Appreciation, and Application (pp. 49-54). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Kramer, M.W. (2010). Permission to walk. In J. Keyton & P. Shockley-Zalabak (Eds.), Case studies in organizational communication: Understanding communication processes (3rd ed., pp. 132-140). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kramer, M.W. (2010). Permission to walk. In J. Keyton & P. Shockley-Zalabak (Eds.) Instructor manual and test questions for case studies in organizational communication: Understanding communication processes. (3rd Ed., pp. 160-165). New York: Oxford University Press.

Dougherty, D.S., Kramer, M.K., Hamlett, S.R., & Kurth, T. (2009). Language convergence and meaning divergence: An examination of language and meaning for social-sexual behaviors in organizations. Communication Monographs, 76, 20-46.

Kramer, M.W. (2008). The year of the newborns: A department chair's reflections. Women's Studies in Communication, 31, 196-202.

Aubrey, J.S., Click, M.A., Dougherty, D.S., Fine, M.A., Kramer, M.W., Meisenbach, R.J., Olson, L.N., & Smythe, M.J. (2008). We do babies!: The trials, tribulations, and triumphs of pregnancy and parenting in the academy. Women's Studies in Communication, 31, 186-195.

Click, M.A., & Kramer, M.W. (2007). Reflections on a century of living: Gendered differences in popular songs. Journal of Popular Communication, 5, 241-262.

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Communication and uncertainty reduction during job transfers: Leaving and joining processes. In L.L. Putnam & K.J. Krone (Eds.), Organizational Communication (Five Volume Series). London: Sage. (Reprinted of Communication Monographs, 60, 178-198.)

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Permission to walk. In P. Shockley-Zalabak & J. Keyton (Eds.), Case studies in organizational communication (2nd Ed. pp. 216-226). Los Angeles: Roxbury Press.

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Permission to walk. In J. Keyton & P. Shockley-Zalabak (Eds.) Instructor manual and test questions for case studies in organizational communication: Understanding communication processes. (2nd Ed., pp. 160-165). Los Angeles: Roxbury.

Kramer, M.W. (1994). I'll second that: A role-playing simulation for parliamentary procedure. Simulation and Gaming, 25, 545-550.

Kramer, M.W. (1991). Organizational learning through job transfers. Working Papers Series, V5, College of Innovation Management and Entrepreneurship; The Institute of Management Sciences.

Publications on Volunteers, Voluntary Membership, and Nonprofits

Piercy, C., & Kramer, M.W. (2017). Exploring dialectical tensions of leading volunteers in two community choirs. Communication Studies, 68, 208-226.

Kramer, M.W., & Danielson, M.A. (2017). . Communication and role development for zoo volunteers: Responding to role-sending, role-making, and role-remaking. Journal of Applied Communication Research,45, 96-115.

Zanin, A.C., Hoelscher, C.S., & Kramer, M.W. (2016). Extending symbolic convergence theory: A shared identity perspective on a team's culture. Small Group Research, 47, 438-472.

Kramer, M.W., & Danielson, M.A. (2016). Developing and re-developing volunteer roles: The case of ongoing assimilation of docent zoo volunteers. Management Communication Quarterly,30, 103-120.

Tornes, M.J., & Kramer, M.W. (2015). The volunteer experience in temporary organizations: Volunteer role negotiation and identity in a popular culture conference. Communication Studies, 66, 590-606.

Meisenbach, R.J., & Kramer, M.W. (2014). Exploring nested identities: Voluntary membership, social category identity, and identification in a community choir. Management Communication Quarterly,28, 187-213.

Kramer, M.W., Lewis, L. K., & Gossett, L.M. (Eds.). (2013). Volunteering and communication: Studies from multiple contexts. New York: Peter Lang.

Kramer, M.W. (2013). The socialization of community choir members: A comparison of new and continuing volunteers. In M.W. Kramer, L.M. Gossett, & L.K. Lewis (Eds.), Volunteering and communication: Studies from multiple contexts. (pp. 65-86). New York: Peter Lang.  

Lewis, L.K., Gossett, L.M., & Kramer, M.W. (2013). New directions for volunteering. In M.W. Kramer, L.M. Gossett, & L.K. Lewis (Eds.), Volunteering and communication: Studies from multiple contexts (pp. 407-416). New York: Peter Lang.  

Kramer, M.W., Meisenbach, R.J., & Hansen, G.J. (2013). Communication, uncertainty,   and volunteer membership. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41, 1-22.

Kramer, M.W. (2011). A study of voluntary organizational membership: The assimilation process in a community choir. Western Journal of Communication, 75, 52-74.

Kramer, M.W. (2011). Toward a communication model of volunteer socialization. Communication Monographs, 78, 233-255.

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Communication strategies for sharing leadership within a creative team: LMX in theater groups. In G. B. Graen (Ed.), LMX leadership: The series: Sharing network leadership (Vol. 4, pp. 1-24). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Kramer, M.W. (2006). Shared leadership in a community theater group: Filling the leadership role. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34, 141-162.

Kramer, M.W. (2005). An examination of communication and outcomes in two community theater groups. In O. Leontovich & J. Parrish-Sprowl (Eds.), Communication studies 2005: Modern anthology (pp. 119-150). Volgograd, Russia: Peremena.

Kramer, M.W. (2005). An ethnography of a fundraising marathon group. Journal of Communication, 55, 257-276.

Kramer, M.W. (2005). Communication and social exchange processes in community theater groups. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 33,159-182.

Kramer, M.W. (2004). Toward a theory of dialectics in group communication: An ethnographic study of a community theater group. Communication Monographs, 71, 311-332.

Kramer, M.W. (2002). Communication in a community theater group: Managing multiple group roles. Communication Studies, 53, 151-170.